Resources

We’ve gathered top reports from around the world focused on hydrogen and provided a summary of each along with links to the reports for more information. We’ll be adding more resources over time, so continue to check back for the latest news and research findings.

Sensus Resources


Leak Testing with Helium for Blended Hydrogen Applications

In this Sensus whitepaper we will address the safety risks of a hydrogen blended natural gas, the necessary actions to reduce these safety risks and the process in which devices and equipment are considered acceptable for use in hydrogen environments. In this whitepaper we will explore:

  • The engineering challenges associated with safely transporting a hydrogen blended natural gas
  • How can municipalities, utilities and other stakeholders determine what blend of hydrogen their pipelines are able to safely handle
  • Solutions for leak detection and more

Download White Paper

Sensus Hydrogen Blogs

We connect places, smart devices and systems through high-powered channels that are dedicated to utility data. More than that, we help connect people. We bring public service providers closer to the customers they serve, and we strengthen the ties that bind citizens into communities.

Making Connections is a place where forward-looking utilities find relevant, informative ideas and stories. If the posts found here spark a thought-provoking conversation – well, we consider it time well spent.

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Industry Reports


NASA Material Report on Hydrogen Embrittlement

Released in April 2016, this NASA report explores hydrogen embrittlement, which is a decrease in the toughness of a metal caused by exposure to hydrogen or gases containing hydrogen, such as hydrogen sulfide. The report outlines:

  • Physical indicators of embrittlement, such as singular sharp cracks
  • Environmental factors that influence embrittlement, such as pressure, temperature, and hydrogen gas purity
  • Methods for preventing and controlling hydrogen damage

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IEA World Energy Outlook 2022

The World Energy Outlook explores different scenarios based on assumptions, such as no changes in energy policy, and projects outcomes for each of those scenarios. The projections that are most relevant to gas utilities in the US are those showing the mix of gaseous fuels that will be used in the future.

  • Demand for natural gas will flatten and potentially decrease over the comping decades
  • Interest in hydrogen has drastically increased, as seen in supportive policies and funding
  • Building a hydrogen supply chain is a top priority for developed countries, especially hydrogen production and transport

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Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues

This NREL report published in 2013 analyzes the implications of blending hydrogen into natural gas systems, from distribution to end use. Their key findings are:

  • Utilizing concentrations of hydrogen less than 15% appears to be viable without posing major safety risks or changes required at end-use devices, such as household appliances
  • When it comes to distribution, the suitable blend concentration will vary depending on the pipeline materials and overall health
  • Any introduction of hydrogen blends into the pipeline network system will require extensive testing in advance as well as on-going monitoring and maintenance
  • These costs will need to be measured against the benefits of hydrogen blending

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IEA: The Future of Hydrogen

G20 commissioned IEA to produce this report published in June 2019. It assesses the viability of hydrogen in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and outlines the policies needed to drive wider adoption of it.

They concluded that:

  • Hydrogen can contribute significantly to decarbonization if adopted by large-scale sectors such as transport and power generation
  • Hydrogen can play a key role in stabilizing power supplies by supplementing the variable output from renewables like wind and solar

They made several recommendations to government and industry that could affect gas utilities, including:

  • Focus on existing industrial ports to create lower cost hydrogen hubs
  • Leverage existing natural gas infrastructure for distributing hydrogen
  • Foster an increase in hydrogen availability and lower cost by establishing international standards and shipping route

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Hydrogen-Ready Appliances Assessment Report

As a part of investigating hydrogen blend effects on appliances, the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance partnered with Cadeo Group to provide next steps on achieving appliance readiness for hydrogen blends. The report concludes that appliances show no impact with hydrogen blends of up to 20%, but further outlines the need for standardized testing methods in the United States for hydrogen blends and appliances. Furthermore, the report provides recommendations for lowering carbon emissions in the gas industry: “a 100% hydrogen system” or hydrogen blends.

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Industry News


DECC Desk Study on the Development of a Hydrogen-Fired Appliance Supply Chain

Due to regulations of reducing carbon dioxide emissions, the KIWA group developed a report to explain how the United Kingdom’s efforts to meet international regulations will influence “gas-fired equipment”. The report explains the following about utilizing hydrogen to supply heat and the effects of hydrogen usage on domestic and larger scale settings:

  • Cost and timeframe estimate of appliances
  • Control, use, and design
  • Necessary updates to safety standards and training
  • Barriers for development and how to overcome them

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Appliance and Equipment Performance with Hydrogen-Enriched Natural Gases

The Canadian Standards Association conducted testing to determine performance of up to 15% hydrogen-natural gas blends on appliances, specifically space and water heaters. Overall, the study showed that hydrogen blends do not affect appliances of up to 15% and ultimately produce lower carbon emissions. Further testing needs to be conducted to determine how higher hydrogen blends will affect these findings.

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Appraisal of Domestic Hydrogen Appliances

The Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy with the United Kingdom government utilized Frazer-Nash Consultancy to investigate the feasibility of developing appliances to be used with 100% hydrogen. From this research, Frazer-Nash explains the different components within the appliances that will need to be updated, like the burner design, for appliances to reach this capability. Lastly, Frazer-Nash outlines the three options for moving towards hydrogen appliances:

  • New appliances, only for hydrogen
  • New appliances, for hydrogen and natural gas
  • Current appliances with updated components

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